One in three pregnant women experience blood loss at some point during pregnancy , especially in the first trimester. They can be caused by a minor problem or be a symptom that something is wrong, but always, as is normal, they are a cause for great concern in pregnant women. One of the most common causes of bleeding, especially during the first months of pregnancy, are intrauterine hematomas in pregnancy .
What are intrauterine hematomas
Intrauterine hematomas are known as interdeciduotrophoblastic hematomas . They appear when small lakes of blood are produced inside the endometrial cavity, between the most superficial layer of the uterus and the tissue of pregnancy.
It is quite common in the first stage of pregnancy, however its cause is unknown. It is not usually accompanied by abdominal pain and bleeding may be variable (even no bleeding may occur). In any case, when faced with blood loss during pregnancy, you should immediately go to the doctor to assess the cause.
In general, intrauterine hematomas do not usually lead to pregnancy loss , especially when a heartbeat is observed. In most cases, resting the bruises are reabsorbed and disappear spontaneously, although if the bruise is very large it will take longer to disappear and the bleeding will be longer.
In the event of a hematoma, as a precautionary measure, the pregnancy is considered high risk and an intensive control is carried out to assess its evolution.
What happens if I have an intrauterine hematoma during pregnancy?
Intrauterine hematomas are wedge-shaped or crescent-shaped between the chorionic (placental) tissue and the uterine wall.
In the event of a hemorrhage, the gynecologist performs an ultrasound to assess the state of the fetus and check if the cause is a uterine hematoma. In the case of no bleeding, the hematoma is detected in the control ultrasound. The volume of the hematoma is measured using the length (mm) x width (mm) formula, which gives the size of the hematoma inside the uterus.
The prognosis of intrauterine hematoma is assessed taking into account two main elements: location and size.
A small or moderate hematoma without the company of other symptoms has a good prognosis and does not usually constitute a threat of abortion. As the pregnancy progresses, circulation returns to normal and most bruises gradually disappear.
However, if there is abundant bleeding accompanied by abdominal pain, the doctor will assess the threat of miscarriage and will indicate the most appropriate treatment, with rest being the best tool to prevent the hematoma from continuing to grow.
If the hematoma is large and located in a compromised site, it may be related to pregnancy complications such as placental abruption or premature rupture of the bag , which can cause miscarriage or premature delivery in more advanced pregnancies.
Types of hematomas in pregnancy
Depending on where the hematoma is located, they can be classified into:
- Subchorionic hematoma : it is the most common type, it is located between the chorion, which is the outermost membrane that surrounds the gestational sac, and the endometrium, which corresponds to the innermost layer of the uterus.
- Retroplacental hematoma : It is located between the uterine wall and the placenta. It is associated with placental abruption, which is usually the most common cause of bleeding from the second half of pregnancy.
- Subamniotic hematoma or preplacental hematoma : it is the less frequent type. The accumulation of blood does not affect the insertion of the placenta.
Many women experience blood loss in pregnancy . As we said before, they are always a reason for consultation. If the doctor detects an intrauterine hematoma, it is important to follow his instructions, which will surely be absolute rest, prohibited sexual relations and in some cases, progesterone.