The increasing threat of identity fraud means the government must strengthen the security features in passports. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) chose facial recognition as the primary biometric with iris and fingerprint as backup. ICAO is a multi-national, transnational organization that sets the standards and rules by which international flights are conducted. One of their top mission priorities is to regulate border crossings by airplane. As such, they have taken on the task of developing the standards which all nations will adhere to when sending or receiving international passengers on flights across their respective borders. The goal of the passport specifications as developed by ICAO are meant, quite simply, to create the most secure document in the world. The use of biometric information to link a person to a passport can help to counter identity fraud. In practice, biometric verification can be used at border controls and to verify the image on a passport renewal application against images held on record. The use of biometric information to link a person to a passport serves a dual role:
o helps to detect counterfeit or manipulated documents
o confirms the identify of the individual
2. Biometric in the passport
2.1. Facial recognition: Facial recognition technology has quietly matured to the point where software can scan live video feeds in real-time, find faces in the video stream, capture them, and match them against photographs in databases in merely a few seconds. Facial recognition maps various features on the face, for example, the distances between eyes, nose, mouth and ears. The measurements are digitally coded and this can then be used for comparison and verification purposes. Biometric technology is perfectly safe as facial biometrics can be taken from a good quality passport photo.
When the person enters a place where he is presumed to volunteer his face for biometric examination, he will be required to remove hats and facial coverings. An e-Passport scanned the passport, pulled the physical image up, scanned the chip and pulled the digital image up, placed the two side by side for comparison, verified they were identical, took a picture of the person standing in front of them, used facial recognition to compare the person to the pictures, all while comparing the pictures to a watch-list database for a match. Four points of comparison keyed on one photograph, with three comparison methods. engaged: visual comparison by the operator, one-to-one match against the photos on the passport, and one-to-many match against the watch-list databases.